Interessentanalyse og interessenthåndtering

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Udvidelse af værktøjskassen

Jeg vil gerne udvide din værktøjskasse med ”Salience-”modellen til kategorisering af interessenter.

Således hermed et mere teoretisk bidrag til værktøjskassen, da jeg synes vi trænger til til at få nye modeller og lidt mere teori ind over projektledelsen. Teorien i dette indlæg er rettet mod projektledelsen i det enkelte projekt og ikke den interessenthåndtering som relaterer sig til program- og porteføljeledelsen.

En af opgaverne for en projektleder i samarbejde med projektteamet er at varetage interessenthåndteringen i projektet, og jeg vil gerne bidrage til dette arbejde med en introduktion af en ikke så kendt model til kategorisering af interessenterne. I meget af den danske projektledelseslitteratur anvendes ofte begreberne ”involvering” og ”indflydelse” men jeg vurderer, at ”Salience-modellen” giver en anden vinkel og kvalificerer diskussionerne om de enkelte interessenter. (Modellen er kort beskrevet i Systemisk Projektledelse men desværre er f.eks. urgency oversat til respons, som jeg ikke synes er dækkende)

Jeg har selv som projektleder arbejdet meget med modellen og derved fået sat et andet billede op af interessenterne til gavn for projektet. Teorien var let at forstå, og diskussionerne af de enkelte interessenter blev langt mere nuanceret.

Salience er svært at oversætte direkte men ord som fremtrædende eller synlighed forsøger at dække det. Jeg bruger ”Salience” for ikke at forvanske begrebet. Oversættelserne til dansk er egen fortolkning, mens den engelske beskrivelse står i parentes .

”Salience-modellen”
“Salience-modellen” består af 3 attributter

  • Magt (power)
    Ved magt forstås, at interessenten kan tvinge projektet til at gøre noget som det ellers ikke ville have gjort. Der kan være tale om at udøve magt gennem f.eks. tildeling /ikke tildeling af ressourcer og gennem symbolske handlinger ved at be/afkræfte status, anerkendelse og prestige.
  • Legitimitet (legitimacy)
    Denne handler ikke om lovlighed men om at interessenten har en socialt accepteret eller ønsket handlemåde i forhold til projektet. Det kan være på det individuelle, organisatoriske eller samfundsmæssige niveau.
  • Uopsættelighed (urgency)
    Her er der tale om at interessenten er i en position, der gør at interessenten kan forlange, at projektet reagerer med det samme. Der er tale om dels følsomhed overfor tiden f.eks. at forsinkelser er uacceptable for interessenten og dels at få opfyldt sine krav er vigtigt for interessenten.

Modellen vises grafisk således:

Modellen suppleres yderligere med 7 forskellige interessentkategorier:


Værdien ved en god interessentanalyse
Interessentanalyse og håndtering er vigtigt når projektet skal give værdi, og det er vigtigt at være opmærksom på om nogle skifter position undervejs f.eks. kan de skjulte interessenter ændre karakter hvis de får en af de øvrige attributter.

Er der teoretisk belæg for denne måde at kategorisere interessenterne på ? Ja Bonstra viser i sin artikel fra 2016, at det er en værdifuld måde at kategorisere interessenterne på, og at interessenterne skifter position undervejs. Dette støttes også af Williams, Ferdinand og Pasian fra 2016, der viser hvordan de sociale medier får mindre og upåagtede interessentgrupper til at mødes, få et fællesskab og derved skifte position til at blive mere betydningsfulde for projektet.

Rent praktisk er det også let at supplere sin interessentoversigt med endnu en kolonne, hvor tallene kan skrives ind, og derved supplere billedet af interessenterne.

Der er selvfølgelig flere modeller og perspektiver på interessenter i projektledelsen og det er faktisk et område, hvor der sker rigtig meget forskning. Jeg håber dog at dette lille blogindlæg kan inspirere jer til at dykke ned i andre end de mest kendte modeller.

Judith Parus
Syddansk Universitet, Institut for Sociologi, Miljø- og Erhvervsøkonomi, Navn: Judith Andrea Parus Arbejdssted: Syddansk Universitet, Institut for Sociologi, Miljø- og Erhvervsøkonomi, Esbjerg Titel: AC-fuldmægtig og ekstern lektor m. undervisning i projektledelses-fag. Beskrivelse: Jeg er Master i Projektledelse i 2010, med et speciale i projektporteføljestyring i en kommune. Inden min ansættelse på SDU har jeg arbejdet i flere jyske kommuner som udviklingskonsulent, projektkonsulent og projektleder. Jeg brænder for projektledelse der giver værdi for organisationen. Jeg har praktisk erfaring som projektdeltager, projektsekretær, styregruppearbejde, projektleder samt med opstart af et PMO, herunder udvikling af projekthåndbog og metodeværktøjer. Gennem flere år aktiv i Dansk Projektledelse.
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